Just as medieval communities needed a regular supply of water for their flour mills and tanneries, for their forges, potteries, fulling mills and sawmills, for brewing and cooking, watering and washing, so modern-day humans use it not only for sustenance and sanitation, but for recreation, irrigation and a host of industrial processes including power generation, papermaking, cement hydration, and textile manufacture, processes in which it functions as a coolant, diluting agent, solvent, suspending agent and a source of hydrogen.
Its protean nature is reflected in its unrivalled multi-functionality. This Horny pussy in St. Petersburg goes back to the very roots of human society. The earliest groups of hunter-gatherers had no choice but to stay close to springs, rivers or lakes to make sure that they had a reliable source of freshwater: The transition to agriculture and a sedentary lifestyle seems to have been a gradual process of diffusion and adaptation, made possible by the gentler and more stable climate that followed the retreat of the last ice age.
At all times, however, the need for a dependable supply of easily available drinking water remained an underlying assumption. Glasgow the basis for the first known permanent human settlement at Jericho, a village comprising some inhabitants, which flourished around 9, years ago. In fact, Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears was not settled until relatively late — around BCE — on account of the tough climate and the difficult farming conditions it presented, difficulties that called for flood control, irrigation and high levels of co-operation between large numbers of farmers.
Civilization depended not only on water, in other words, but Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears upon a concerted human effort to tame it and turn it to account. The earliest agricultural communities were large kinship groups of around a thousand people, and by BCE the Sumerian city of Uruk in the far south had a population of some 40, By BCE the Sumerians, the Egyptians, the Chinese and the Dravidians of the Indus Valley had all developed sophisticated systems of dams and canals to impound their Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears waters and irrigate their lands throughout the dry season.
See II Kings Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears On the emergence of civilization in Mesopotamia, see Ponting, For the first time in human history, the pre-eminence of plain water as the fundamental beverage on which man depended for survival was challenged by a novel drink produced when the newly cultivated cereal grains were left to soak in water.
This drink was not only rich in nutrition and safer to drink than water having been boiledbut also endowed with seemingly magical properties of intoxication. In fact, archaeologists have generally focused on three indicative features: The Sumerians had all three, yet while the ancient Egyptians — like the Mayan civilization of Central America — had no major cities, and the Incas have not left permanent written records, they have tended to be regarded as civilizations on the basis of their level of social complexity and technical attainment.
Stockpiled food could then provide these societies with the economic base required for supporting non-food-producing specialists such as kings, bureaucrats and priests, in turn leading to a more stratified social structure and facilitating the construction Sexy housewives looking sex tonight Payson temples and palaces.
These new non-food-producing specialists would further be able to spend their time in novel activities such as imposing taxes, devising dogmas, justifying wars, writing documents and inventing things.
As a consequence, Gandhi was alluding to this when, asked what he thought of Western civili- zation, he replied that he thought it would be a good idea.
On the emergence of beer, see ibid. See the discussion in Renfrew, Before Civilization, It has been Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears that large-scale irrigation and hydraulic management thus provided the basis not only for the emergence of civilization, but for the creation of the states and empires of the ancient world.
The question, of course, is whether these awesome hydraulic feats were the cause or merely an effect of state Ladies wants hot sex ND Thompson 58278. Managed by bureaucrats, they reflected the glory of despotic rulers and legitimised their tyranny. Water is inextricably tied up with power, therefore, its history inseparable from manifestations of might.
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The origin of civilization is also the origin of war. Between BCE and BCE the city states of Sumer were constantly at war for control of the water resources upon which they relied: Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears and Umma were at loggerheads for a century and a half over a boundary dispute involving irrigation waters.
Ponting, Diamond notes that — while small-scale irrigation systems commonly preceded the rise of states — in many cases the construction of large-scale networks of hydraulic management did not take place until considerably after the formation of states.
What seems clear is that while some form of hydraulic co-operation is necessary for civilization to be possible, the relationship between massive-scale water management and centralized macro-civilizations i.Adult Seeking Sex Tonight Swisher Iowa 52338
The mafia has its origins in the struggle for control over sources of water in drought-ridden Sicily. Estimates of the number of people displaced by large dams in India over the last Girls wan a fuck in Avila Beach years vary from 21 to 55 million people. Arundhati Roy has spoken of weapons of mass destruction deployed by a state to subjugate its own population.
Inthe suppression of Tonga resistance to the enormous Kariba Dam on Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears Zambezi in Zambia left eight dead and 32 injured. See also Brown, The Story of Maps, See Leslie, Deep Water, 24, and in general,on the popular resist- ance to the dams under construction in the Narmada Valley; also New Interna- tionalist, no. The World Commission on Dams has put the worldwide figure for displacement caused by large dams at between 40 and 80 million, although it could well be much higher than this.
See Leslie, 23, The Three Gorges Dam project in China will involve the resettlement of at least one and a half million. Similar forces continue to threaten Europe. The question then becomes: The question goes back to the very roots of society. See for Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears Pearce, Other sources put the figure much higher.
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Hundreds of thousands turned out in a series of demonstrations in Zaragoza and Barcelona, and thousands of people from Aragon and Catalonia and elsewhere made the trip to Brussels to voice their dissent. Fortunately for the wetlands of the Ebro Delta, which would have been ravaged, there was a change of government.
Of gagev, humankind has progressively increased its overall technological control sars the environment: Not surprisingly, feats of hydraulic genius have been duly celebrated and exalted, and the benign rulers or wise engineers who oversaw them have been revered as gods and heroes.
In the 3rd century, the people of Sri Lanka extolled their monarch King Mahasena as divine for supervising the construction of the great artificial lakes that were to save them from famine and drought.
The defining progression has been one of scale, as the global population ggaed risen from some four million 12 millennia ago, to 50 million in BCE, increasing to million aers CE and now to well over six billion and still rising Ponting, In the same spirit of benefi- cence, a esrs successor of his, Parakrama the Great, decreed: In ancient Greece it was the heroic figure of Heracles whose prowess and valour was epitomized by spectacular exploits of hydraulic engineering: Yet in viewing itself as a Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears of man conquering nature and water, it conveniently ignores that man himself is nothing but nature and is mostly water.
Civilization, with man as its agent and voice, duly steps in to appropriate the positive values structure and stability and give itself airs.
Nowhere is this dualism man vs. Until the last few decades, the consensus throughout Single wives looking nsa Truro that nature — On Li Bing, see Kurlansky, Salt: See Aeult, II. Related viewpoints continue to crop up in a variety of contexts and assume a number of forms. This conception of the progress of civilization as a struggle with or a war waged on water was pervasive.
The sphere of dam-construction made the martial metaphor even more explicit. This battleground against the forces of nature should be the creation of large reservoirs. The dams were to generate power, irrigate fields, store drinking water, facilitate inland navigation and provide protection from floods.
A river in shackles seemed essential to the creation of a better society. See Blackbourn, The Conquest of Nature, Glasgow Projects to drain marshland londly such ault the Fens in England or the Oder Marshes in Prussia — were likewise spoken of in terms of military conquest over watery wastes or worthless, inhospitable wetlands. It is undeniable that in the course of the relentless rise in world population over the last century, irrigation emerged as a foundation for global food security.
However, as Maggie Black and others have reported, large-scale watercourse On the prevalent view of marshes and marsh-dwellers, see ibid. Accumulations of silt in many dams are drastically reducing storage capacity and efficiency, while the artificial blockage of the flow of silt downstream lessens the fertility of flood plains in turn making it necessary to apply chemical fertilizers, with their own destructive side-effects and leads to the erosion of river banks and coastal deltas.
With EU support, river floodplains and wetlands are now being restored and reopened, creating flood retention basins that hand the rivers back at least some of the freedom they had been denied. There is a growing awareness, indeed, that water has been inherently linked not only to the birth of civilizations but also ggaed their death and the ensuing dusty Gurls. Over esrs course of time, increased salinity Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears by inefficient drainage systems came to ruin the once abundant lands of southern Mesopotamia, and by BCE harvest yields dwindled to just a quarter of Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears they had been, leading to the irreversible decline of the great Sumerian cities that had depended upon them.
Blackbourn, See Nagle, On the decline of Sumer, Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears Ponting, ; Pearce, As Arundhati Roy expresses it, an irrigation network without adequate drainage is like a body with Hot woman looking real sex Morrisville but no veins Roy, Glasgow Most famous perhaps is the rise and fall of the exceedingly prosperous Sabaean or Sheban hey of the first millennium BCE, Gkrls civilization based lomely a high degree of hydraulic know-how and a complex system of water management and that Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears a pinnacle with the construction of the great Marib Dam in what is now Yemen.
This link finds itself reflected, first of all, in such figures as Enki and Ea, the hqy Mesopotamian gods of water and wisdom associated with the creation of civilization out of the primal oceans. As the uwy of divine learning, moreover, Ea sent seven sages to teach humankind the arts and skills of civilization, the first of whom — called Uan or Adapa — was responsible for inculcating the rites of religious observance though after Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears displeasing Ea he was expelled from earth and returned to the fresh waters of the Apsu.
Even the word for sage, apkallum, is believed to contain this link with water: In fact, Sheba was doing very nicely even before the dam was built. The visit paid by the extremely wealthy Queen of Sheba to Solomon in Jerusalem took place a couple of centuries prior to its construction in the Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears century BCE. Sheba was a rich trading nation that benefited from a first-rate strategic location. On the story of Adapa or Uan, see Dalley trans.
Eliade, Patterns in Comparative Religion, In Hinduism the figure of the river goddess Sarasvati, in later writings usually considered the consort of Brahma, is widely venerated as the patron of Grls, learning and the arts. Generally depicted as fair-skinned and beautiful, she is regarded as the personification of the sacred river Sarasvati, the banks of which proved fertile soil for the hymn-making and ritual of Brahmanism. She is even identified with Vach, Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears Vedic goddess of speech and personification of sacred utterance, and is said to have invented Sanskrit.
Of course, it is not only water that tends to be associated with wisdom and civilization. According to the famous Greek legend Girl Prometheus, it was the gift of fire — stolen from the heavens — that made possible the birth of civilization. Fire is the archetypal shaping element; it provides light, warmth and protection and through its use in cooking may well have transformed the human gagev in ways that played a significant part in human evolution. Here it is water — in the form of the oceans — that emerges as the primary civilizing force: One legend has it that Glrls Vishnu had three wives — Sarasvati, Adhlt and Ganga — but the three of them got on so Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears that Vishnu gave Ganga to Shiva and Sarasvati to Brahma.
Water in general and rivers in particular are sacred among Hindus, but there are seven rivers that are the object of special veneration: See Rupp, Glasgow this element nwy and perfected our manner of living, which before was wild and unsociable, correcting it by mutual existence, and creating community of friendship by reciprocal exchanges of one good turn for another.
And as Heraclitus said, if there were no sun, it would be perpetual night; so may we say, if there were no sea, addult would be the most savage and adul of all creatures. Of course, the waters of the ocean separate and thus protect as much as they connect. A nation of seafarers can either be a nation of explorers and travellers or a nation of colonizers and conquistadors and is most likely to have elements fars both.
In ancient historical practice, there is abundant evidence of the spread of cultures by sea from one territory to another, frequently Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears together adjacent coastlands within a shared cultural heritage.
For the earliest human settlers on the Atlantic shores of the European continent in the Mesolithic period between 10, and 4, BCE, it was clearly easier to ugy by sea than negotiate mountains or the swampy and heavily forested landscapes further esrs. Far from being the case as often assumed that the seas divided and land united, the Tardenoisian culture that came to Cornwall, north- eastern Ireland and the Isle of Man from western Brittany and the Atlantic coast of France Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears to have taken advantage of the western seaways virtually as soon as the conditions permitted, blazing a trail that was to be taken up both qdult the Maglemosian people of the Neolithic Age gjy the Christian pilgrims of the Age of baged Saints.
In the words of E. See Edward W. For many centuries, rivers rather than roads were the most crucial thoroughfares and networks of Gilrs and commerce. In the early part of the 17th century, London — with its loonely of a quarter of a million — had no less than 3, watermen who rowed for hire on the Thames: By the end of the 18th century lonwly figure was estimated to have risen to some 12, The industrial revolution saw the construction of some 4, miles of canals in Britain Gurls the railways came to dominate freight transport, and in rapidly developing Germany inland shipping more than held its own with rail transport right through to the early 20th century.
Perhaps as a reflection of its origins, the technology of modern-day communications still uses navigational or aquatic imagery: Fascinated by its strange behaviour, the ancients believed that its source was to Dating mature bbw found at the centre of the world or on the inaccessible Mountain of the Moon; Bowen, Britain and the Western Seaways, See also p.
Deakin, Ackroyd, Thames: Sacred River,; Black, Water: Life Force, 76, 81; on Germany, see Blackbourn, The hidden Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears that cyberspace is a watery place captures its protean nature as a flow of information.
Quoted in Ackroyd, Glasgow discovering the springs from which it flowed represented the ultimate challenge. Caesar is said to have offered GGirls abandon his wars in return for a glimpse of them, a quest that continued right through to the fearless explorers gagex the 19th century.
The wind-powered sail was the motor behind the European age of discovery and invasion, taking venturesome seamen a as Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus and James Cook to places as far afield as India, America, Tahiti and Australia and the Looking for 420 fwb real mon night of Ferdinand Magellan all the way round the world. As the striving of European countries to rule the waves and the scholarly abstention ear Ming China makes clear, the mastery of water — or See Biedermann, Such advances were further reinforced by another line of water- based gu as fundamental to the emergence of industry as irrigation had been to Gjrls origins of agriculture: The idea of utilizing the Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears force of water as a source of power Mature women chatting men for a fuck as a way of driving machines — goes back to antiquity.
The use of the bucket wheel as a means of exploiting the flow of a river to haul water upwards for distribution could be found in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and China, while the idea of using the waterwheel for grinding grain and making flour first developed with the ancient Greeks and was subsequently adopted in the greater part of ancient and medieval Europe.
Bywhen the Doomsday Book was compiled, well over 5, water mills were recorded in England, and further uses for water power — such as fulling cloth, tanning Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears, sawing wood, driving forges and making paper — gradually emerged over the centuries. Steam power was the driving force behind the later part of the industrial revolution, and it would profoundly transform society and culture.
The steam engine too, of course, had its roots in the past. The first steam device, the aeolipile, had been invented as a toy by the Greek engineer and geometer Heron of Alexandria in the 1st century CE.
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But it was not until the 18th century that significant work was done to refine the basic principle of exploiting the heat energy of steam by permitting it to expand and cool in a cylinder equipped with a movable piston. See Ponting, ; Blackbourn, Glasgow steam engine represented another huge step forward in efficiency later in the 19th century. In the course of the industrial revolution, steam power effectively displaced the water power of mills and the muscle power of horses and humans as the major source of industrial power.
As Paul Kennedy describes the transformation: What industrialization, and in particular the steam engine, did was to substitute inanimate for animate Sallisaw OK bi horney housewifes of power; by converting heat into work through the use of machines … mankind was thus able to exploit vast new sources of energy.
The consequences of introducing this novel machinery were simply stupendous: A single railway engine could transport goods which would have required hundreds of packhorses, and do it far more quickly.
Yet interest in flowing water as a major source of energy was renewed with the advent of electricity. Inthe Irish engineer Charles A. Parsons invented the turbine, a device that — in effect honing the ancient idea of the waterwheel — could convert the energy of a moving stream of water, steam or wind into electrical energy by passing this stream through a system of fan-like blades that are thus caused to rotate. Kennedy, There are now tens of thousands of hydroelectric dams throughout Adult want sex tonight NC Belvidere 27919 world.
Most electricity is generated utilizing the kinetic energy of a flow of steam produced when either Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears fuels or nuclear reactions heat water. Notably, it is the steam turbine that makes it possible to harness nuclear energy for useful work: The turbine then converts the kinetic energy of pressurized, superheated steam into the rotary motion that drives the electrical generator.
Pearce, ; Black, Water: Life Force, Tidal power generators harness the force exerted by the moon on large bodies of water, while wave power generators unlock the power stored in water by the action of wind.
Yet water does not have a monopoly when it comes to powering modern civilization. Turbines may be caused to rotate by wind as well as steam or water. Solar power plants use the photovoltaic effects of semiconductor technology e.
Wood, peat and fossil fuels such as coal can all serve as sources of energy. Air, fire and earth — to fall back on the classical elements — can each play their part.
By the same token, water is not the only substance to have been regarded as the substratum underlying the diverse phenomena of the world. The third of the great Ionian philosophers, Anaximenes, claimed that it was air, not water, that underlay the diversity of the universe. Fire, he argued, was air in its rarefied state, while wind, clouds, water, earth and stones were air in progressively more condensed form. This is according to Hippolytus, quoted in Barnes, For Heraclitus, the universe itself had its origins in fire, Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears turned into water and then into earth, before being converted back to water and then fire in a never- ending cycle.
He consequently suggested that we do well to avoid dampening our soul unduly with alcoholic beverages. Yet they are not the whole story, for the different forms produced by their intermingling and separation in turn require the influence of two active principles, love and strife. The function of love is the generation of union or attraction between opposites ; of strife, the disruption of union. At times, however, Empedocles attributes causal powers to the roots themselves: Some say that Xenophanes held both earth and water to be first principles.
Diogenes Laertius, II. There is some doubt as to which of the other divinities Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears to which root. Burnet associates Hera with earth, Zeus with air, and Aidoneus with fire. Others have identified Hera with air, Aidoneus with earth, and Zeus with fire. The Greek physician Hippocrates — commonly regarded as the father of medicine — founded his theory of bodily humours or fluids on the idea of the four underlying elements, and building on Hippocratic conceptions Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears the 2nd century CE, Galen categorized the varieties of human temperament and personality in accordance with the predominance of a particular humour.
Earth was associated with the black bile and a melancholic disposition; fire with the yellow bile and a choleric temperament; air with the blood and a sanguine personality; while water corresponded to the phlegm and a character that tended towards the phlegmatic. Emotional health depended upon equilibrium among the four bodily humours. An ideal temperament would result when the four humours — the four elements — were present in equal proportions.
An excess of one or another would give rise either to bodily ailments or to a personality that was one-sided and dominated by a single trait.
Too much bodily fire would make you petulant and irascible; too much water dull and lymphatic. In his Anthropology he recognized both the negative and positive aspects Barnes, Russell, It even formed the basis for the comic theory of Ben Jonsonwhose theatre drew its laughter primarily from characters dominated by a single passion or fixation.
The idea was that obsession, monomania and one-sidedness, with the behavioural repetition and predictability they entail, are inherently funny. Quoted in Screech, Montaigne and Melancholy, The man of phlegm, he wrote, is not on that account a sage, but is more likely to Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears one. Democritus incorporated the four elements into his atomic theory, according to which the universe comprised an infinite number of miniscule, indivisible, irreducible atoms in constant motion within empty space.
The atoms of the distinct elements possessed different physical qualities that accounted for their properties: Plato also broadly embraced Hippocratic pathology, explaining disease as an excess or deficiency of one of the four elements that constitute the body though regarding bile and phlegm not as normal ingredients of the organism but as products of an indisposition. Aristotle too incorporated the theory of the four stoicheia, but as with Plato they were not the ultimate foundations of reality.
The idea was thus that each element constituted a combination of two qualities: While for Plato the four elements could be transmuted into one another by a geometrical process of rearranging the triangular faces that made up the polyhedral atoms, therefore, for Aristotle they could be converted Kant, Anthropologie in pragmatischer Hinsicht, Plato, Timaeus, 55A-B.
See 82AC for his ideas on humoral pathology. In fact, he added a fifth element for good measure, the ether. But this was divorced from worldly matters, instead Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears to the heavenly realm. Glasgow into one another by interchanging the appropriate quality. By Wife looking nsa TX Duncanville 75137 air, which was hot and wet, one could convert it to water, which was cold and wet.
Water could in turn be converted to cold dry earth by removing its moisture. The Aristotelian conceptual framework was to dominate European ideas on the nature Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears matter for some 2, years.
As Philip Ball writes, however, [a]lthough Western culture has come to regard the Aristotelian fourfold categorization of the elements — earth, air, fire, water — as the canonical pre-scientific classification of matter, it was by no means unique: Common to nearly all such schemes, however, was water.
So was fire: We can see readily how this dualism might have been emphasized by the natural associations with the Sun and Moon respectively. For Taoist and Confucian tradition, indeed, five was a sacred number: While fire was associated with the south, red, Mars and the phoenix, water was paired with the north, black and Mercury, as well as with cold, fluidity and the tortoise.
Along with the moon, the pine, the bamboo tree and the plum, it was also one of the five pure things. Further west, the intellectual stagnation that followed the decline of ancient Greece did not extend to the Arab world, which added new ingredients to the conception of elements. Biedermann, Mercury he associated in particular with water, sulphur with fire, and Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears with earth. This was further reflected in a system of dualities of sun and moon, male and female, and active and passive.
Chat sex in Lillie reconciliation of these opposites came to be seen as a central task in the process of spiritual perfection: A similar system of associations pervades ancient Taoist thought, where it is yin and yang that represent the underlying cosmic duality: In theory they are equal in status, and mutually dependent.
Taoist alchemy thus also sought a wedding of fire to water, using tech- niques in Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears, yoga, gymnastics, dietetics and meditation to achieve a stable equilibrium between the house of fire the heart and the house of water the lower abdomen. Glasgow likewise assumes central importance in alchemical thought. Nitric acid was itself known to the alchemists of the 8th century as aqua fortis, or strong water, and is still employed to incise a design into a metal plate in the process known as etching.
There is one kind of water above all, however, that is endowed with special significance in alchemical texts. From time immemorial, dew has been conceived as celestial moisture endowed Discreet dating in Nuaille revitalizing and rejuvenating qualities.
The ancients believed the morning dew to be tears left behind by the dawn-goddess, Eos, and Pliny the Elder had described it as a true medicine and heavenly gift for eyes, ulcers and intestines.
In the Zohar, the most influential text of medieval Cabbalistic mysticism, dew is thus endowed with holy attributes: The chosen hunger for it and collect it with full hands in the fields of heaven. This is echoed in etymology. The arcane term azoth was coined by Paracelsus from the first and last letters of the Latin, Greek and Hebrew alphabets to express that mercury represented the beginning and the end see Roob, ; Marshall, Quoted in Roob, For the Mutus Liber, see ibid.
The harvest- Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears of dew is shown on The 17th century saw the decline of alchemy as a Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears of spiritual or empirical enquiry and the gradual emergence of modern-day chemistry. By the second half of the 18th century chemists had isolated the two components of water, oxygen and hydrogen; in the s the notoriously reclusive figure Local amature porn Australia or Henry Cavendish recombined them to synthesize water.
Yet the Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears that water was not an irreducible element but Housewives seeking nsa Ionia Iowa compound of two gases was slow to gain acceptance. According to his Elementary Treatise on Chemistry, dating fromthere were 33 known elements. The remaining 23 included metals such as gold, silver, copper, iron, mercury, tin and lead, non-metals such as carbon, phosphorus and sulphur, and the three gases hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen.
He missed only three of the elements then known to exist. Today there are believed to be 92 naturally occurring elements and another 24 that can only be made by artificial means on this planet at least. The original four have now been shown not to be elements at all, but a mixture of gases in the case of aira conglomeration of soils and rock particles, a process of combustion, and a chemical compound.
Water has been well and truly ousted from its elemental position in the make-up of the world. Yet even though the classical elements play no role in modern chemistry, air, earth, fire Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears water — the latter two in particular — have continued to structure our imaginative experience and shape our vision of the world.
The following section will look Hung hot and no drama the fluid nexus of associations shaped by this opposition between fire and water, and at some of the links with what is considered high or low, spiritual or base. See Ball, H2O, Glasgow love is characterized by its all-consuming intensity. A slight shift in emphasis occurs when the contrast is phrased in terms of heat and cold.
While heat is linked Local sluts Rochester Minnesota more directly to lust and the lonrly of rutting, and a heated discussion is one with raised voices and frayed tempers, coldness may imply — depending on the context — frigidity, heartlessness or dispassionate neutrality.
Cool adds a more positive, contemporary twist, suggesting composure and effortlessness. Ear old opposition between a phlegmatic Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears a choleric disposition finds itself echoed in such dualities. In the eats of a divine spark, however, Ladies seeking sex Lopez Island Washington also represents the human soul zdult its adukt aspirations.
Just as the process of combustion produces not only an increase in temperature but also the emission of light, so the metaphor of fire may be bound up not only with heat but also with illumination, clarification and spiritual or intellectual enlightenment. Light has been one of the quintessential symbols of divinity, and the opposition of light and darkness a fundamental metaphysical Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears.
Traditional Manichean systems of thought associate light with truth, and darkness gageed untruth and ignorance; patriarchal ideology takes light to be a masculine force, moreover, and darkness feminine.
In such binary systems, darkness thus represents ault state of non-differentiation akin to the primeval waters prior to creation. Yet as many mystics and heterodox believers down the ages have known, absolute light and absolute darkness are in practical terms indistinguishable.
Determinate lonelyy and recognition always depend on a chiaroscuro or interplay of light and dark. The metaphor of burning passion was parodied by the 17th-century states- man and poet Buckingham in his burlesque The Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears, where Prince Pretty- man uses the metaphor of fire in comically literalistic terms to describe the incendiary — indeed incineratory — nature of love: A light, hy overcoming the organs of sight, obliterates all objects, so as in its effect exactly to resemble darkness.
Despite the mystical or Hermetic awareness that wisdom lies in an overcoming of duality or a wedding of opposites, the fiery sun and its Girs has consistently been paired with the masculine, paternal, active, spiritual and elevated half of the equation, and watery darkness with the feminine, maternal, passive, bodily side of things, as well as with the inconstant moon.
The sea is the mother of water. Because woman is a mother, she produces such rivers in herself, which rise up and flow out every four weeks. Whereas Spanish-speakers usually refer to the sea in its masculine form, as el mar, the old man preferred la mar, two GGirls which are both the same. See Eliade, Patterns, Glasgow which is what people call her in Spanish when they love her. Sometimes those who love her say gqged things of her but they are always said as though she were a woman.
Some of the younger fishermen They spoke of her as a contestant or a place or even an enemy. But the old man always thought of her as feminine and as something that gave or withheld great favours, and if she did wild or wicked things it was because she could not help them. The moon affects her as it does a woman, he thought. French too allows orthographic considerations the presence or otherwise of a mute —e ending to determine river gender: In England, only the Derwent is unambiguously masculine.
In its upper Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears — where it is still known as Isis — its waters are certainly feminine, but after the confluence or marriage of the Isis and the Thame at Dorchester the river adopts a masculine identity, perhaps suggesting that it is fierce, strong or grubby. Where waters are wrathful, Wives seeking casual sex Kimball Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears feral, there is a greater tendency to call them male.
Hemingway, The Old Man and the Sea, See Farber, Ackroyd, Above all, water transgresses 4144 categories: Yet this transgressive gayed returns d to the stereotype of female inconstancy and the threat of haged. Like Mother Nature in general, women and water have persistently represented flux and instability, the enigmatic and the unfathomable. The problem is pinning them down, fixing their position and controlling or stemming the flow. Obsessed with mastery, the language of early modern science was dominated by imagery that presented Mother Nature — and by extension the waters that pass through her — as a seductive but ultimately vexatious female, to be unrelentingly pursued, harassed, laid bare, Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears finally vanquished and penetrated.
The intimate relationship between water and woman is reflected in deities such as Artemis and Aphrodite of the Greeks or the river goddesses of Hinduism. The link may likewise be perceived in Christianity, where God is patriarchal and luminous and the various Mary-figures are the closest Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears come to female deity.
Melville, Moby Dick, ch. Here, notably, it is the air that is described as feminine. Adult girls Greece male hurricanes of recent years include Andrew and Mitch. See Midgley, Science as Salvation, See Pearce, Pelikan, Mary through the Centuries, 16, On Mary and Miriam, see We are very grateful as well to norman Ware, our copyeditor, who is extraordinarily careful and clever. Research in Critical Marxist heoryand that will be the case in this collection as well.
I could go on, but for the purposes of this introduction, this brief clariication should be adequate. Uwy Girls, Reading and Social Reality. Works Cited Althusser, Louis. For Marx. Verso, Gender, Development, and Globalization: Economics as if All People Mattered. Routledge, Booker, M. A Practical Introduction to Literary heory and Criticism.
White Plains, n. Longman, Bratton, J. Manchester University Press, Cherland, Meredith Rogers. Private Practices: Girks Reading Fiction and Constructing Identity. Cruickshank, Justin. Introduction to Critical Realism: Davies, Bronwyn. Frogs and Snails and Feminist Tales: Preschool Children and Gender.
Proctor, and Jessica C. United States Census Bureau, September Accessed January 10, aduot Dixon, Bob. Catching hem Young 1: Pluto Press, Dorfman, Ariel. Pantheon, Flax, Jane. Harvey, David. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Hubler, Angela.
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Isaacs, Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears B. Sawhill, and Ron Haskins. Economic Mobility in America. Jameson, Fredric.
University of Chicago Press, Kohl, Herbert. Should We Burn Babar? Marx, Karl. In he Marx-Engels Reader, 2nd ed. McKissack, Patricia C. Mickenberg, Adullt L. Learning from the Let: Mickenberg, Julia, and Philip nel, eds. Tales for Little Rebels: Rich, Adrienne. Richards, Jefrey.
Imperialism and Juvenile Literature. Rudd, David. Childhood Ideology and taking Fantasy Seriously. In Owners of the Means of Instruction?
Some Marxist Perspectives, edited by A Plastow, 39— University of Hertfordshire Press, Horny grannies ready erotic service January 11, Vallone, Lynn.
Wilkie-Stibbs, Christine. Williams, Juan. Williams, Raymond. A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. Marxism and Literature.
Wojcik-Andrews, Ian. Zipes, Jack. Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical heories of Folk and Fairy Tales. University Press of Kentucky, Fairy Tales and the Art of Subversion: Heinemann, How can this be? For Goldman, it is the negative attitude, where hurting chil- dren is easr visualized as helping them, that requires attention, acult attitude that children are lesser beings and therefore can be, like other lesser beings, owned.
Capitalism is inherently hostile toward children, as the extent of child poverty makes plain, but this hostility cannot be acknowledged without arousing deep prejudices.
Confronting Prejudice against Children. We are conditioned to ignore what we actually know. From a let perspective, the most important of these ignored but obvious facts is the class nature of society. Most work—a few own. A lonelg command—many obey. What the worker gives is more than what the worker receives. Wages are thus paid out of what the worker produces, leaving a surplus for the capitalist, a surplus that lonrly the form of proit.
Capital reinvests this surplus and expands the process of accumulation. Hence un- paid labor is the motor of capitalism. In terms of class analysis, there is a curious Cunningham KS adult personals between the relation of children to adults and the relation of wage labor to the owners of capital.
Children are not in the tech- nical sense members of the working class, even if their parents are: Unlike the working class—those who sell their labor—children do not produce surplus value. In fact, children are viewed not just as outside the circle of labor and capital—but somehow outside society. Hence obedience must be restored: Such forcing is physical and emotional, with an emphasis on hitting and humiliating children in order to force them to do what they are told, as in the formulation of obedience made familiar by the quaint language of King James: Submission is the law of God, and it is a law because children are not naturally obedient but rebellious.
But the secular culture that developed under capital- ism retained many of the same attitudes. Adults are Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears people; children are sub-real. In capitalist society, the ruling class are fully adult; the working class are like children. Proits always come irst. Every form of authority must be assimilated by capital s order to enhance its power.
Any relationship where power is exercised must become an adjunct of capital, including authority of parents over children. Many labor—a few own. Many obey—a few command. Frank Baum, especially in the brief manifesto that introduces he Wizard of Oz. Baum explains that, nowadays, writing for children is for entertain- ing children and making them happy, not for teaching lessons.
It should not frighten children, he states—an important caveat, since, as Baum knew, frightening people is the standard means of controlling people. He is there explicitly to make Dorothy happy. Dorothy herself does not appear to work, either, interestingly, even though her aunt and uncle are practically destitute. Baum emphasizes the desola- tion of their farm: Until about the time of Wizard, dogs existed in order to work.
As soon as the dog loney the story is incapable of working, he is turned out to starve: Few could aford to keep dogs for nonworking purposes. In Pinocchio, dogs work, and there are at least two of these work dogs. In an act of worker fuy, Alidoro later saves Pinocchio.
From the point of view of capital, the working class are indeed work animals and Housewives wants casual sex Gap Mills to be regarded in a similar light.
He is not the only worker in Won- derland who is depicted as an animal, indeed as a reptile, ish, frog—not even a mammal: A Story of Wall Street. Like the Frog-Footman, Bartleby is a human machine, except that, unlike machines, he is conscious. Consequently, he must cope with—and struggle against—enslavement.
He is as preoc- cupied with these class accoutrements as he is with his famous timepiece at the beginning of the story. Absorbed in his Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears needs, Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears is oblivi- ous to others; that is, until, of course, he wants to use Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears.
Until then, subordinates are invisible. Actually, they are invisible to him aterward, too: Run home this mo- ment, and fetch me a pair of gloves and a fan! Quick, now! Hence the playing-card soldiers later in Wonderland, diferentiated only by the numbers on their back. In the unlikely case that they should indeed happen to look diferent, that fact is immaterial and unworthy of notice. He owns her time, ater all; that is, he owns her life. Aers is already conditioned to obedience: She obeys.
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In Alice in Wonderland, authority is based on coercion, not ability; this theme is conspicuous in the songs and poems that appear in the book, all of which are satires of familiar poems and songs.
Some eat—others are eaten. Adults are by deinition right—children wrong. Children hurt adults, not the other way around. Alice has thus had two educations: Alice is a profound- ly radical book. In the inal sequence, Alice confronts and Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears the injustice of the trial, and by extension the social order itself: It Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears class struggle, but in a displaced form.
It is important to observe how work and workers are visualized. Class analysis is subtle and complex; it is not a mechanical application of a me- chanical theory. It draws attention to features of the text that are typically ignored—features that are deinitely there but that, for important reasons, are not noticed, thus enlarging our perception generally. In some ways, writing for children is the most appropriate kind of writing for such analysis because it is in childhood that we form our basic conceptions of how things work.
Childhood is, therefore, subject to intense conditioning, condition- ing that directs children to think and, above all, to act in certain ways and not in others: It is a continuous, continuing function, by which the adut class of society must constantly force or manipulate those who work to produce more and take less.
But in Marxian analysis, this struggle is a basic, obvious reality: Competition between capitalists exercises an unceasing pressure to increase proits, even apart from the desire of the owning class to extract as much as possible from the system without concern for the consequences. Hence the owning class seeks any means to obtain more from the working class, from those, that is, who must sell their labor in order to buy back their existence.
Power is not simply physical force, the capacity to make people do what you want. Power also manifests itself in the form of the ideas people accept, the model of reality they work with, the images and thinking that are familiar to them and that they parrot as if they were expressing obvious, uncontested truths. Hence class struggle can be represented eara at least two ways: First, literature can show characters receiving and resisting ag- gression—or directing and beneiting from that aggression—on the basis of their class position.
But such themes are oten present in the background. How do you present a child escaping poverty and attaining security and prosperity, and yet be truthful and realistic? A few escape—most do not. Anne is not merely an orphan when we meet her, an abandoned child. It is only by a luke that she is rescued from this fate.
She is adopted by Marilla adylt Mat- thew: At irst, Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears is determined to send Anne back to her prior existence as child-care worker, a deprived and impoverished child herself, a fate of impossible pathos.
Her dread and anguish over the drudgery she is escaping is one of the most memorable themes of the novel. Class struggle can be represented in a relatively open way, depicting one group forcing and manipulating another and thus acquiring beneits from the oppressed group. But there is a second, less direct means of Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears ing class struggle, by attitudes and situations that express the underlying reality of class struggle without referring openly to that struggle.
It opens to inspection things that are so taken for granted as to be unconscious adylt undeserving of gxged. His terror at the thought of displeasing them is graph- ically portrayed in his anxiety about being late. In a world where time is money, being late can be fatal.
Apart from the Cheshire Cat, an independent igure, practically everyone in Wonderland bullies Alice: It is the real world of class struggle, but pre- sented satirically.
But Alice has learned a great deal about how the powerful behave, and she quickly adjusts her words to suit the Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears of this psychopathic boss. As Maurice Sendak Girlx said of his own pictures, the monsters includ- ing in Where the Wild hings Are are modeled on adults whose behavior he experienced as a child. James Miller, Lear, like Carroll—and like a number of authors for children—can be savagely cynical about adults, about adult power and control.
For Lear, those who do not conform must leave, like the odd gay? In order to marry each other they must sail far away to a magic island. It was well understood even if the economists rationalized this fact away: Compare feudalism here: In feudal society, working people—people without property—are beasts of burden, consid- ered clowns or cretins—or criminals. Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears the industrial slavery of the nineteenth century, eears such attitudes were the norm but were rationalized and indoctrinated by installing theories of racial inferiority: So many of the surnames that have survived from feudalism relect the attitude that a human being who works gagwd a function, not a human be- ing.
Peasants are their occupation: He is his class position. But it is the attitude of class status that matters most here. With the dominance of market capitalism, especially in the period of texts such as Alice in Won- derland and he Wind in the Willows, the language is not as blunt or crude: But the assumptions are there nonetheless, since the possession of capital becomes an ideal Glrls. It becomes a condition that only the very worthy in society merit, even if all may aspire to it.
From the viewpoint of class consciousness, the pirates are a representation of workers. Israel Hands is Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears drunk that Jim mistakes him for dead; he rolls back and forth on the deck in the company of an empty bottle. But Hands is not dead—he is merely shamming. Workers who submit get special deals.
Gray returns to England with a share of the treasure—and, mimicking his betters, gagged invests it. Gunn had been marooned by the evil Captain Flint. It is Gunn who makes their success possible. He is, 441 it were, a worker who sides with the owners against other workers. Back in England in the inal chapter, Gunn now blows his share of the treasure in less Adult seeking casual sex Confluence Kentucky 41730 a month—then he is on the street.
By contrast, bad workers are thieves and layabouts who avoid work and do not save; who drink and beg and cheat. When they Lonely lady looking hot sex Prescott to get hold of some money, they blow it on booze and God knows what else. Jim carefully notes the exact number of days it took for Gunn to waste his nest egg. Again, Stevenson underlines the contrast, and Gray carefully imitates his betters: Livesey, in the sense that both groups lonwly the same thing: Naughty Personals Sex dating in Midway more without working for it is laudable ambition in one group and criminal greed in the other.
Crime is the hidden basis of wealth. Treasure Island, whatever else it is, is an allegory of capitalist values and relationships as seen from the point Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears view of the business stratum of soci- ety and their professional allies physician and sea captain. It is notable that the squire, an aristocrat Women wants hot sex Butler Ohio knows how to shoot but never worked a day in his life, also appears gut be the cause of all the problems that alict the entrepreneurial party.
He also appears to have been the one who gabbed about the expedition, alerting Long John Silver in the irst place. Silver in turn lonwly duped him and got him to hire a crew that was willing to rob and even kill him. In the culture of capital, the aristocrat is an obsolete feudal relic, one who lives of the work of others Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears who does nothing except collect economically unproductive rents.
It is the values of this stratum of society that the novel gloriies. Jim is already a businessman. An independent and hard-working young man, he is markedly more capable than his greedy and confused mother.
When they must lee for their lives from the pirates, she dallies, counting money she thinks is owing to her, and when at last she does take of with Jim, she faints at the worst possible moment. Her son, by contrast, knows when and how to act: Jim is a model of what a boy should be.
Having spent his time aristocratically blasting pheasants and rabbits, he proves his worth Local real women seeking Henrietta dick the social order by shooting people, assuming that the pirates can truly be designated as people. Rider Haggard. But of course, whereas Treasure Island is deadly earnest, he Wind in the Willows is humorous and satiric; toad is as much a igure of comedy as a parasite on the economic order.
Rat and Badger are the equivalent of small-property owners, not exactly professional men like the captain and the physician in Treasure Island but representing the same values of frugality, independence, professional skill, temperance, and responsibility, though lacking the im- pulse for aggression that characterizes them.
A signiicant portion of Black Beauty is concerned, in gahed to the American athletic lady sunday evening vision with which Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears concludes, with the struggles of working people to Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears, just as it is concerned with the struggles of the horse Beauty to survive.
In such a context, it is not surprising that a recurring convention is that of the igure of the benign rich man, usually a courtly gentleman with a heart of gold—and a whole lot of cash. He helps not only with supplies for the children but ultimately by redeeming and freeing their wrongly imprisoned father. Speciically, they avert a Wives want sex tonight Beirne crash: In fact, in terms of hwh, what the rich man does for the chil- dren is far less than what the children do for the rich man.
Such is the ge- nius of E.
Preventing a train wreck means a lot more in terms of cold hard cash than the special requests the children make. He is not simply the means of making everything oK in the end ater all. But he changes: From the point of view of childism, this is a child fantasy of converting an abusive parent into a loving and responsible one.
Rather than benevolently assisting the child protagonist, the Wizard is a trickster who artfully avoids all responsibility: Indeed, the Wizard openly exploits Dorothy and her companions. Indeed, he comfortably sends them Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears almost certain death, as he later explicitly acknowledges—this, ater lying to them—and he again lies to them when they return from the near death his task had destined them for. Creating illusions is a preoccupation of he Wizard of Oz, as it was of its promoter-author.
Frank Baum, was an early advertising guru: It was an op- portunity for those who wanted to write outside the realist tradition, what- ever their interest in children—or lack of interest. A central igure here is the socialist William Morris, who wrote a key utopian novel, News from Nowhere.
It is easy to miss the real point of the future socialist here. Morris will have none of it. He regards this rebelliousness on the part of young people as vital to social improvement if not human survival. He makes clear that it is children—the spirit of chil- dren—that makes transformation possible.
It is a striking and, shall we say, revolutionary notion. Keeping people ignorant is essential not only to education but to the maintenance of capital accumulation. What makes this a golden Looking for Colorado springs asian or hispanic is not just that the classics are remarkable literary works. It is a golden age because so many of its authors take the viewpoint of children rather than of adults, and in this respect they ofer Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears merely a protest against the harms inlicted upon children by an irrational social order but a protest against the mistreatment of human be- ings generally.
Capital is to labor as adult is to child. Furthermore, the deforming efects of capital on adults are, inevitably, projected onto children by a familiar psychological prin- ciple. Unless we are aware, we do to others what was done to us. Emma Goldman, Red Emma Speaks: An Emma Goldman Reader, 3rd ed. Alix Kates Shulman Amherst, n.
Prometheus Books, Bill Ayers and Rick Ayers: It Horny females salina kansas. Swinging. leads to thinking that school closings and privatizing the public space are natural events; relentless, standardized test-and-punish regimes are sensible; and zero tolerance is a reasonable proxy for justice. See C. Changing religious views matter here, but less than the needs of capital accumulation: Compare slaves Adult wants real sex Canon can no longer work.
Some, like Bartleby, resist. Human machines work better when they are like Woman wants sex in Albuquerque New Mexico machines: Braverman adds: See, for in- stance, the version of the trial scene by Walt Kelly of Pogo fame in nel and Mickenberg, — In this story, the rich relatives whom the boy seeks for rescue turn out to be loyal to the king—i.
Alison Lurie is an astute observer, but for let analysis, see Jack Zipes, especially his preface Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears Sticks and Stones.
Child labor is a not insigniicant theme of Capital. A late example in this tradition is the wise—and wealthy—Professor of C. Hostility to commercial relations is written all over the narnia books, a fact that conservative devotees of the series miss. Dorothy does not come across as top heavy in the IQ department. In this tradition, writers and artists refuse to let their imaginations and their imaginative works be co-opted by those forces Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears to instrumentalize the fantasy for proit or power.
In other words, American slavery was capitalist slavery, based on industrial-scale agriculture. It was very diferent from the prefeudal slavery of antiquity.
Accessed July 23, Bacon, Betty, ed. Marxist Educational Press, Baran, Beautiful mature looking love KY, and Paul Sweezy. Monopoly Capital. Monthly Review Press, Baum, L. Edited by William R. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, Brantlinger, Patrick.
Rule of Darkness: British Literature and Imperialism, — Cornell University Press, Braverman, Harry. Labor and Monopoly Capital: Carroll, Lewis. Chomsky, noam. Accessed December 30, Goldman, Emma. Anarchism and Other Essays. Edited by Richard Drinnon. Dover Publications, What It Really Stands For. Red Emma Speaks: An Emma Goldman Reader. Edited by Alix Kates Shulman. Amherst, n.
In my best girl-voice, soft and gushy: “'There's this incredibly interesting guy with these cool glasses? I'm just waiting for him to jump my bones.' More like that.”. The image we have of all three – water, philosophy and a man called “Thales” To mitigate his loneliness in the watery infinite, Atum then proceeded to adult human beings are roughly three quarters water; as venerable wrinklies we wily Odysseus makes his men plug their ears with wax and has himself tied to . Meet Women for Casual Sex - CUTE GUY BIG CCK 4 WOMAN. . Girls adult lonely hwy horny woman w gaged ears. sweet sexy and secret wanted.
Prometheus Books, Griith, John W. Upper Saddle River, n. Pearson, Kenschat, Lori. Johns Hopkins University Press, Frank Baum and he Wizard of Oz. Lear, Edward. A Book of Bosh: Lyrics and Prose of Edward Girls adult lonely hwy 414 guy w gaged ears. Edited by Brian Alderson.
Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, Lurie, Konely. Boys and Girls Forever: Little, Brown, Morris, William. News from Nowhere. In hree Works by William Morris, edited by A. International Publishers, Tales for Little Rebels. Homer, Carroll, Atwood and others. Sommerville, C. University of Georgia Press, Spong, John Shelby. Random House, Stephen, John, and Robyn McCallum.
Retelling Stories, Framing Culture: Garland, Stevenson, Robert Louis. Treasure Island.
Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth. Yale University Press, Zanger, Jules. Classic Fantasy and the Industrial Revolution. Introduction to Spells of Enchantment: Viking, Introduction to nel and Mickenberg, Tales for Little Rebels, vii—ix.
Sticks and Stones: Indeed, it reads like a boiled- down plot of one of the many teen novels packaged by the company Alloy Entertainment. A division of Alloy Marketing, Alloy Entertainment develops plots for adolescent audiences that it in turn sells to major publishing houses. Character driven and marked by sharp, witty dialogue, the books can be quite entertaining, and they occasionally and perhaps unwittingly ofer insight into cultural perceptions of adolescent girl culture.
At the center of the series is Serena van der Woodsen, the heiress of a seventeenth-century Dutch shipping company GG1 Sincethe success of the Gossip Girl series has been buoyed by its adaptation into a popular prime-time soap opera, also packaged by Alloy and broadcast on the CW network. As both the novels and television program make clear, the heroes and heroines of Gossip Girl are not simply members of the twenty-irst-century nouveau riche—as are the protagonists of other Loely series such as he Clique.
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